Stop the Band-Aid Treatment
We Need Policies for a Real, Lasting Middle East Peace
By Jimmy Carter
Tuesday, August 1, 2006; Page A17
The Middle East is a tinderbox, with some key players on all sides
waiting for every opportunity to destroy their enemies with bullets,
bombs and missiles. One of the special vulnerabilities of Israel, and a
repetitive cause of violence, is the holding of prisoners. Militant
Palestinians and Lebanese know that a captured Israeli soldier or
civilian is either a cause of conflict or a valuable bargaining chip for
prisoner exchange. This assumption is based on a number of such trades,
including 1,150 Arabs, mostly Palestinians, for three Israeli soldiers
in 1985; 123 Lebanese for the remains of two Israeli soldiers in 1996;
and 433 Palestinians and others for an Israeli businessman and the
bodies of three soldiers in 2004.
This stratagem precipitated the renewed violence that erupted in June
when Palestinians dug a tunnel under the barrier that surrounds Gaza and
assaulted some Israeli soldiers, killing two and capturing one. They
offered to exchange the soldier for the release of 95 women and 313
children who are among almost 10,000 Arabs in Israeli prisons, but this
time Israel rejected a swap and attacked Gaza in an attempt to free the
soldier and stop rocket fire into Israel. The resulting destruction
brought reconciliation between warring Palestinian factions and support
for them throughout the Arab world. Hezbollah militants then killed
three Israeli soldiers and captured two others, and insisted on Israel's
withdrawal from disputed territory and an exchange for some of the
several thousand incarcerated Lebanese. With American backing, Israeli
bombs and missiles rained down on Lebanon. Hezbollah rockets from Syria
and Iran struck northern Israel.
It is inarguable that Israel has a right to defend itself against
attacks on its citizens, but it is inhumane and counterproductive to
punish civilian populations in the illogical hope that somehow they will
blame Hamas and Hezbollah for provoking the devastating response. The
result instead has been that broad Arab and worldwide support has been
rallied for these groups, while condemnation of both Israel and the
United States has intensified.
Israel belatedly announced, but did not carry out, a two-day cessation
in bombing Lebanon, responding to the global condemnation of an air
attack on the Lebanese village of Qana, where 57 civilians were killed
this past weekend and where 106 died from the same cause 10 years ago.
As before there were expressions of "deep regret," a promise of
"immediate investigation" and the explanation that dropped leaflets had
warned families in the region to leave their homes. The urgent need in
Lebanon is that Israeli attacks stop, the nation's regular military
forces control the southern region, Hezbollah cease as a separate
fighting force, and future attacks against Israel be prevented. Israel
should withdraw from all Lebanese territory, including Shebaa Farms, and
release the Lebanese prisoners. Yet yesterday, Prime Minister Ehud
Olmert rejected a cease-fire.
These are ambitious hopes, but even if the U.N. Security Council adopts
and implements a resolution that would lead to such an eventual
solution, it will provide just another band-aid and temporary relief.
Tragically, the current conflict is part of the inevitably repetitive
cycle of violence that results from the absence of a comprehensive
settlement in the Middle East, exacerbated by the almost unprecedented
six-year absence of any real effort to achieve such a goal.
Leaders on both sides ignore strong majorities that crave peace,
allowing extremist-led violence to preempt all opportunities for
building a political consensus. Traumatized Israelis cling to the false
hope that their lives will be made safer by incremental unilateral
withdrawals from occupied areas, while Palestinians see their remnant
territories reduced to little more than human dumping grounds surrounded
by a provocative "security barrier" that embarrasses Israel's friends
and that fails to bring safety or stability.
The general parameters of a long-term, two-state agreement are well
known. There will be no substantive and permanent peace for any peoples
in this troubled region as long as Israel is violating key U.N.
resolutions, official American policy and the international "road map"
for peace by occupying Arab lands and oppressing the Palestinians.
Except for mutually agreeable negotiated modifications, Israel's
official pre-1967 borders must be honored. As were all previous
administrations since the founding of Israel, U.S. government leaders
must be in the forefront of achieving this long-delayed goal.
A major impediment to progress is Washington's strange policy that
dialogue on controversial issues will be extended only as a reward for
subservient behavior and will be withheld from those who reject U.S.
assertions. Direct engagement with the Palestine Liberation Organization
or the Palestinian Authority and the government in Damascus will be
necessary if secure negotiated settlements are to be achieved. Failure
to address the issues and leaders involved risks the creation of an arc
of even greater instability running from Jerusalem through Beirut,
Damascus, Baghdad and Tehran.
The people of the Middle East deserve peace and justice, and we in the
international community owe them our strong leadership and support.
Former president Carter is the founder of the nonprofit Carter Center in